The material used is anything coarse, even linen drill. Threads are also coarse, soft cotton, with an even coarser cotton for the padded work. Stitches common to the techniques are long bullions, padded satin, French knots, knotted chain, cable plait, and a host of others used to make combinations unique to this artform. The traditional work is done on cotton satin jean, which has a soft sheen, and the stitches executed with matte knitting cottons. This helps to create the contrast of the work.
Quoted statements excerpted from Mary Thomas Embroidery Book. Similar explanations appear in Weldon’s Encylcopedia and Weldon’s Practical Guide to Fancy Work. It currently is enjoying a slight resurgence in New Zealand and parts of Australia.